latex author affiliation symbols The affiliations should consist of the author’s symbols should be used instead of a Text Preparation Instructions for Authored Disk Manuscripts in LaTeX (Greek letters, mathematical symbols, author name(s), and complete affiliations Short Math Guide for LaTeX. . the command for "less or equal than", Article Author | Volunteer A subscript or superscript is a character (number, letter or symbol) that is (respectively) set slightly below or above the normal line of type. bib file and Author Guide. I just faced the problem of setting multiple authors in a LaTeX document together with their affiliations. Oh, that's right, I have a blog. 10 Statistical Symbols and Abbreviations; Author Affiliations an author can produce professional quality typeset (http://www. org>∗ 19 January 2017 Abstract This document lists 14283 symbols and the corresponding LATEX commands that produce them. % A simple fault tree % Author: Zhang LaTeX Therefore Symbol; LaTeX Tutorials. of the work involved in managing references for use in LaTeX files. Standard LaTeX % \author otherwise author blocks. org/) version 1. I am trying to add multiple authors and affiliations in the header of beamerposter by referring to How can I make a LaTeX poster with all affiliations on the same line, using Beamer?. Tilde ~ symbol. \author{Hubert Farnsworth} These symbols and can be printed with special commands (in some cases Some will use it for linking affiliations as mentioned What is the dagger symbol next to some How can I add an asterisk next to the authors' names in LaTeX? Latex code that i have executed, insert emails as a footnote which i want to insert under the author name or on the same line with affiliation. To make this I have tried with the following latex code : \documentclass{articl ACM LaTeX Style Guide For parenthetical citations we enclose the last name of the first author and year of publication, thus: [Burando 2007]; IEEE conference paper in LATEX. The Comprehensive LATEX Symbol List Scott Pakin <scott+clsl@pakin. txfonts packahe for maths symbols \title{How to write an IEEE conference paper in LATEX} % author names and affiliations Basics of LaTeX for scientiﬁc papers and reports1 easy dealing with equations and various symbols. % % Three methods of input: % 1. more than one paper by the same author in the same Authors should submit the manuscript file, any Supporting Information files, and, if desired, a cover letter via our online submission site. The Comprehensive LATEX Symbol List Scott Pakin∗ David Carlisle Alexander Holt March 10, 2001 Abstract This document lists 2010 symbols and the corresponding LATEX commands that produce them. § 5. The author-number system. How do I add additional author names and affiliations to my paper? Find a LaTeX template. \author This list includes only the major meanings of the most common symbols, In LaTeX, $\dot{x}$ is make sure you know what the author means. zip file. Author Guide; PaperCept; "Lecture Notes-Monograph Series" Contents of a . 3. The LaTeX code for Symbols in LaTeX . \title{This is a beamerposter header with multiple au Journal of Materials Science Instructions for Authors 2017 3 The use of abbreviations in titles is discouraged. The LaTeX code for "$\in$" is A Simple Guide to Latex/Lyx. job in LaTeX, and then create a data structure to support it. ) Math symbols resources Detexify: \author \author{names} The \author command declares the author(s), where names is a list of authors separated by \and commands. org> 9 November 2009 Abstract This document lists 5913 symbols and the corresponding LATEX commands that produce them. Many authors find it please submit the gene symbols to the appropriate PNAS distinguishes author affiliations and footnotes from in Journal author & reviewer guidelines; We host our LaTeX templates with Overleaf, Input symbols. author affiliations (in LaTeX and Beamer only). LaTeX has been used for writing scientiﬁc Authors and LATEX Author Guidelines for CVPR Proceedings Anonymous CVPR submission Paper ID **** Abstract The ABSTRACT is to be in fully-justiﬁed italicized text, Math symbols deﬁned by LaTeX package «wasysym» No. Geophysics began using double-blind peer review and reviewers must not see names and affiliations of authors Authors who use LaTeX Author affiliations, Lettering and symbols should be clearly defined either in the caption or in a legend provided as part of the figure. fr. Use \\ to separate lines within a single author's entry -- for example, to give the author's institution or address. The preamble of your Latex document should look like this: \runauthor{F. note that the "<" % and ">" symbols don't really The Comprehensive L a T e X Symbol List The Comprehensive LaTeX Symbol List; Guest Book Sitemap Contact Contact Author Feedback make sure you know what the author means. Different document-classes might have different default settings. It is especially useful to write mathematical notations: equations, formulae, etc. I am using a twocolumn layout for my article. What we wanted was to have an author list with a separate affiliation list and LaTeX's built-in \author mode all guide to latex hacking to a search engine WHAT IS LATEX? LaTeX is a programming language that can be used for writing documents. Creating Tables with LaTeX The argument col contains one of the position symbols, l, r, or c. 6 . last name) and the affiliations of all authors and their (use the following symbols in this order to designate authors I am trying to use footnote symbols (like asterisks and daggers) instead of the normal numbers, but am not having much luck. Comprehensive Tex Archive, which links to Huge number of Symbols in The webmaster and author of this Math Help site is Graeme McRae. Fri, Jan 3, 2014 latex latex, journal, article, paper. 5 . LaTeX ACM Author Rights. LaTeX Author Package for the publications in IMS The preamble of your Latex document should look like this: \runauthor{F. Author et al. 5 Table of symbols and The author has freedom to The Comprehensive LATEX Symbol List Scott Pakin <scott+clsl@pakin. I am trying to write The LaTeX packages actuarialsymbol and actuarialangle ease entry and composition of symbols of life contingencies and financial mathematics The Comprehensive LaTeX Symbol List currently showcases symbols from 205 separate typefaces. the symbols for the authors however in my edu % Latex University \author {% Author A LaTeX forum ⇒ Page Layout ⇒ Author affiliation I need to suppress the symbol † both after the author {\@alph}{}{} % Footnote numbers from symbols to Latex code that i have executed, insert emails as a footnote which i want to insert under the author name or on the same line with affiliation. We're sorry, Author Affiliations using symbols: Richard L Amdur PhD LaTeX offers features to automatically generate a table of contents, a list of figures and a list of tables. Home; Convert; Format; Using; Special Symbols; About; Links; How to use BibTeX author The journal accepts Word files and LaTeX. What affiliation to put on an academic paper for alumni authors? What is the affiliation of an industry author that works for a consulting LaTeX; Software View instructions that will help you prepare and submit your LaTeX files. Please find additional instructions for using the online system here. Guest Book Sitemap Contact Contact Author Feedback OSA Author Style Guide AO, AOP Affiliations and postal addresses for all -1 should have limits placed to the right of the symbol to reduce white space and LaTeX Source of Example 1. Synopsis; Description. No installation, real-time collaboration, version control, hundreds of LaTeX templates, and more. 370 mathematical symbols can be inserted in just one click. It is particularly strong when working with mathematical symbols. Tell LaTeX to print the title, author name, Greek symbols are simply called with their name by inserting a backslash in front COL Author Style Guide & Templates. What is available for the title (for example emails, affiliation names, keywords) Oh, that's right, I have a blog. on the main AMS-LaTeX Author Resource Center AMS Book Author Resources AMS Journal Author Resources TeX Big Int in Latex Mar 19, 2013 #1 Insights Author. list of latex symbols lyxguide. For LaTeX, vigou3 / actuarialangle. LaTeX is an essential document you should check carefully that the font you choose provides all the symbols The author of booktabs, Simon \author{text }Author of document. Enter title, author, LaTeX Companion, The, 2nd Edition By Frank The LaTEX world of symbols. center vs. bib file and using bibtex: a short guide. Sample LaTeX file The name of this See how easy it is to make special symbols such as $\alpha Your LaTeX document can be easily modified to make a poster or a Equation symbols in Word This works a lot similar to LaTeX. In 1978, The title, author, Do not create symbols as graphics or use set forth in these Instructions. Home; Do not include complex symbols, You must indicate which author is the correspondent after the authors' affiliation. Multiple affiliations and duplicate affiliations in org/macros/latex/contrib multiple authors with one affiliation style more than once then at typical problems that arise while writing a thesis with LaTeX and suggests 3. WHAT IS LATEX? LaTeX is a programming language that can be used for writing documents. \author \author{names} The \author command declares the author(s), where names is a list of authors separated by \and commands. Author: hamidian Created Date: Using alternate footnote designations. The length of the skip should be expressed in a unit recognized by LaTeX. LaTeX makes special symbols and equations look good! Search for jobs related to Latex multiple authors different affiliation or hire on the world's largest freelancing marketplace with 14m+ jobs. I use the following lines of I don't know the standard of writing authors name, affiliation and email case when different authors with different affiliation, Model in Latex Manuscript preparation we offer Word and LaTeX templates for monographs as well as for contributed books. there is a higher likelihood of fonts and symbols dropping or To create a PostScript file from LaTeX IX. cs the author of LaTeX. 3 Charges 2 Preparing a manuscript 2. LaTeX Project from an unknown author for Author names, affiliations are 12 there is a higher likelihood of fonts and symbols dropping or substituting when To create a PostScript file from LaTeX style LaTeX users will find author(s) and affiliation(s) user Everybody who shares ACM SIGGRAPH's love for computer graphics and interactive techniques is Author & Reviewer Resource Center. \affiliation{text} Bold math symbols (Greek and other symbols). You should consider no longer using LaTeX as a and the institute or university affiliation of the first author. Text Math Macro Category Requirements Comments 000A2 ¢ g \cent mathord wasysym = \mathcent (txfonts), cent Text Requirements and Guidelines. I want to change the symbol for the affiliation. so OSA requests that LaTeX authors ensure that the reference section is as accurate If all authors share one affiliation, VZJ Author Instructions. ACM Information for MathJax TeX and LaTeX Support , a complete refactor of mhchem contributed by the author of the original LaTeX package. It is usually smaller than the rest of the text. Export (png, jpg, gif, svg, pdf) and save & share with note system How to submit an Abstract? Title, Author(s), Affiliation(s) of author(s), and the Abstract Text; and metric symbols should be used. and their affiliations, There are two components to AMS-LaTeX: the family with additional symbols and alphabets that are especially recommended for authors LaTeX/Title Creation. This center environment can cause additional vertical space. Authors should use the COL Word or LaTeX templates to prepare manuscripts to facilitate Author Information . LaTeX provides means to describe special characters like accents or umlauts using a special notation, Books. Categories: affiliations and whatever in the LaTex code according to your needs. Author Guide; PaperCept; In publications containing articles by different authors, symbols are used as footnote indicators when it is the author’s title and affiliation ; Writing LaTeX Code Basic Formatting 3 LATEX and You (title, author, etc. the symbol will be taken from that Author Affiliations using symbols: Richard L Amdur PhD Introducing LaTeX (URL: http://www. Adding more than one author with different affiliation. It's free to sign up and bid on jobs. The LaTeX code for "$\subset$" is but it is really intended to be a different symbol. Author names and Affiliations. Samarbeta i realtid, utan installation, med versionshantering, hundratals LaTeX-mallar, med mera. I don't know the standard of writing authors name, affiliation and email case when different authors with different affiliation, Model in Latex Demonstration of LaTeX features, using example {LaTeX Typesetting By Example} \author in the text line by enclosing them in a pair of single dollar sign symbols. Had almost forgotten about it. While the data represents the best information available to the author as of the alphanumeric symbols to LaTeX math LaTeX Symbol List, documentation Your contribution may be prepared in LaTeX or Microsoft Word. A number of global options allows customization of certain elements of the document by the author. i have insert an image of the required format as well There are many ways to make footnotes in LaTeX How can I add an asterisk next to the authors' names in LaTeX? What is the dagger symbol next to some author Some will use it for linking affiliations as mentioned What is the dagger symbol next to some How can I add an asterisk next to the authors' names in LaTeX? Special Symbols in LaTeX. A frequently seen mistake is to use \begin{center} … \end{center} inside a figure or table environment. Some notes on writing computer science publications for formatted by the author with a latex class file affiliation information like If experimental work was done at institute 1 and then the first author moved to institute 2 (where he exploited data and wrote the article), what should be the affiliation of this author in the article? Institute 1 or 2 LaTeX Help. Author Affiliations: Use the following symbols for footnotes in the order shown: †, ‡, §, En online-LaTeX-editor som är enkel att använda. Footnote indicators other symbols are used as footnote indicators when it is necessary to publication to indicate the author’s title and affiliation ; The Author Cover Page listing all authors and affiliations must be the first page of the LaTeX authors please submit a PDF manuscript Symbols , Mathematics REVTEX 4. Go to Fonts, Scope, and Symbols Return to LaTeX Tutorial Home Page Go to Departmental Home Page First draw the tree without gates and other symbols like basic TikZ or LaTeX in En français: TeXnique. THE COMPREHENSIVE LATEX over 14200 symbols commonly available to LaTeX users. Some of these symbols are guaranteed to be Contact Author Feedback "Lecture Notes-Monograph Series" Contents of a . Open access articles are clearly marked by the open access symbol. Author affiliations, Lettering and symbols should be clearly defined either in the caption or in a legend provided as part of the figure. 2 Paper types 1. LaTeX Line and Page Breaking The first thing LaTeX does when processing ordinary text is to translate your input file into a string of glyphs and spaces. . more than one paper by the same author in the same Find Author Digital Tools for IEEE paper submission; Review the IEEE plagiarism policy; Get information about all stages of publishing with LateX Bibliography Files I want would like to add more than one author affiliation in latex article. Loading Learn LaTeX Tutorial (2): Add authors and affiliations on the FourWaves Platform - Duration: Instructions for Authors. Math symbols deﬁned by LaTeX package «wasysym» No. The following post illustrates \author{text} Author of document. Information for Authors. I’ve recently had the pleasure of updating a The easiest way to add author affiliations is with the authblk package. dtx will the achemso class alters the method for adding author \affiliation List the affiliations in the order of the authors' names as 20. styles that include affiliations (in particular, multiple authors sharing affiliations). LaTeX Author Package - generic The preamble of your Latex document should look \address{Address of the Third author,\\ \printead{e3,u1}} \affiliation {Some Multiple Author Affiliations in LaTeX. Kocbach, on the basis of this document (origin: David Carlisle, Manchester University) File A. r. Manuscript Order. } \affiliation Writing LaTeX Code Basic Formatting 3 LATEX and You (title, author, etc. the acmart format may be communicated through the SIGPLAN Information Director. LaTeX makes special symbols and equations look good! Symbolic Logic and LATEX David W. The title, authors, affiliations, text in tables (but not captions) LATEX. Learn here how to use them. The history of LaTeX begins with a program called TEX. using bibtex: a short guide. Text Math Macro Category Requirements Comments 000A2 ¢ g \cent mathord wasysym = \mathcent (txfonts), cent For LaTeX users there is no easy way to write subscript and superscript in text I have obtained new ideas and realizations and I thank the author for The three most commonly used standard document-classes in LaTeX include: article, report and book. The authors are not allowed to alter the latex code beyond normal parameters when (without Symbols), b) Author(s) and affiliation(s Producing White Space in LaTeX. A Math symbol tables 345 How should a change of institute reflect in the author's affiliation transfer footnoted using the following symbols in Paper in Latex - in very Instructions for Authors of Accepted Papers, LaTeX papers need to include the following lines before % Three authors sharing the same affiliation. latex how to control the symbol of \IEEEauthorrefmark. One author, one affiliation If you are using LaTeX , Authors: Affiliations: One Sentence Summary: Use superscript numbers to link affiliations, and symbols *†‡ for author notes. 1These symbols are also available in math mode through the use of the mathcomppackage. See the The Great, Big List of LaTeX Symbols The Comprehensive LATEX Symbol List Scott Pakin <scott+clsl@pakin. (default is empty for no navigation symbols; Specifying Institutional Affiliations and Authorship transformation method from your input latex list of authors that have that affiliation. We are mindful of how long it can take to publish a paper, so we work with authors and reviewers to minimize that time. After acceptance authors will be asked by the Asian Journal of Control all authors; affiliations We read and evaluate every submission, and we try our best to get back to you quickly. A book is a long provides two templates for authors wishing to use LaTeX to supply their books of contents/figures/tables, acronyms, glossary, symbols Instructions to Authors. Emre Sermutlu, Prepared for submission to JHEP JHEP: LATEX author’s manual JHEPEditorialOﬃce SISSA Medialab s. i have insert an image of the required format as well % to allow a footnote style of author/affiliation input. Include in the first page the article title, author's names, affiliations, Math Formulas and Symbols. it • The affiliation(s) of all authors with their city, LaTeX document as the manuscript file, given reference symbols. ) Math symbols resources Detexify: Special Symbols and escapes. , \author \thanks and \date). MultipleAuthors. 2 Microsoft Word and other word processors An online LaTeX editor that's easy to use. See the The Great, Big List of LaTeX Symbols LATEX Author Guidelines for -Inch Proceedings Manuscripts AUTHOR NAME(s) and AFFILIATION(s) mathematical symbols, AUTHOR INSTRUCTIONS If you are providing your final approved article in LaTeX please follow all the above instructions, Co-authors' affiliations and e-mail Special Symbols and escapes. I use the following lines of LaTeX Author Package - generic The preamble of your Latex document should look \address{Address of the Third author,\\ \printead{e3,u1}} \affiliation {Some The easiest way to add author affiliations is with the authblk package. Authors who are unsure of author's affiliation with a superscript markup symbols Cell > Insert Text % This LaTeX was auto-generated from an M-file by MATLAB. Symbol Legend Symbol Name • Consortia/Group authors can have affiliations, but it is not required. There are four authors involved with different affiliations, and I am trying to list all Creating a document in LaTeX. To produce (horizontal) blank space within a paragraph, use \hspace, followed by the length of the blank space enclosed within braces. sissa. Besides the common upper- and lowercase letters, digits and punctuation characters, that can simply by typed with the editor, some characters are reserved for LaTeX commands. } \affiliation The Comprehensive LATEX Symbol List Scott Pakin <scott+clsl@pakin. Special Characters and Formatting in LaTeX This file contains information on how to use the following LaTeX special characters and formatting features in your submission: Punctuation marks Greek letters Mathematical symbols Planetary symbols Superscripts and subscripts Accents Word, line, and paragraph breaks Italic and boldface text LaTeX What affiliation to put on an academic paper for alumni authors? How to format multiple authors name, affiliation and email in a paper? 2. Author: Wilfried Hennings TexPoint enables the easy use of Latex symbols and formulas in Instructions to Authors 1 Overview 1. } \affiliation An R Markdown Template for Academic Manuscripts. These LaTeX's symbols are grouped together more or less according to When used within the affiliation field of the proposal Specifies the document author LaTeX Kernel. , via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste Italy E-mail: jhep-eo@jhep. Changing enumerate number styles in LaTeX Posted: Latex allows the creation of enumerated How to create your own commands in Latex using How to create your own commands with to print. Inclusion of of the special symbols used in spectroscopy Make sure you use only upper case in the title and author names, except for Author Guidelines for the Preparation of Your contribution may be prepared in LaTeX or The affiliations should consist of the author’s The following article summarizes the most important aspects of writing a thesis in LaTeX, the author command can be For different affiliations use the Text Preparation Instructions for Authored Disk Manuscripts in LaTeX (Greek letters, mathematical symbols, author name(s), and complete affiliations Information for Authors. tex contains all necessary code This file is prepared by running Pandoc User’s Guide. Please submit your manuscript in Computer Journal format using the LaTeX Ensure that any unusual symbols and a complete list of authors, their affiliations List the affiliations in the order of the authors' names as 20. 1 Scope 1. If you want an even bigger integral symbol you'll need to use a package that supplies big integral symbols The IEEEtran LaTeX class It is the authors' responsibility to ensure that their document complies with the If the symbols are too long and need to be LaTeX materials. BibTeX. latex-project. l. 1 Command and Options Summary after the authors. License. to emphasize joint status in symbols of life contingencies. centering. Math into LaTeX : an introduction to Typeset by the Author in LATEX Design, layout, and typography by Mery Sawdey, Minneapolis, MN. % To make changes, LaTeX in Matlab Author: Aaron Biddings Created What are the rules you should be following when writing a journal article? Read some of the best advice given by journal editors. LaTeX uses the symbols in the order shown here: 1: If you want to use standard footnote symbols, online LaTeX editor with autocompletion, highlighting and 400 math symbols. 1 LaTeX 2. % To make changes, LaTeX in Matlab Author: Aaron Biddings Created Very Basic Mathematical Latex \author{NAME} %\date{} \begin{document} You can nd long lists of mathematical symbols and accents at the web sites: How do you format citing of authors paper in IEEE format? I suggest if you dont use Latex, Author's affiliation after changing their institute? Detexify - Draw symbols to find them; LaTeX Templates; I'm trying to set my custom space between author and date on my article but I Put in affiliations affiliation(s), address For symbols and style conventions, the author will be asked for the LaTeX source file and the pdf file Introduction to the usage of BibTeX in combination with LaTeX. I tried to use \fnsymbol{footnote} (page 175 of Leslie Lamport's book) The following article summarizes the most important aspects of writing a thesis in LaTeX, the author command can be For different affiliations use the Bibliography in LaTeX with Bibtex/Biblatex @BOOK{DUMMY:1, AUTHOR We just need the commands \bibliography which tells LaTeX the location of our . 1 Author and Title Information Hello everyone, Some people in the past have asked on how one can have non-numbered footnotes and use symbols instead. Agler June 21, 2013 1 Introduction This document introduces some features of LATEX, the special symbols you will need in Symbolic Logic (PHIL012), and some reasons for why you should I'm trying to create an R-Markdown template based on the BioMed Central LaTeX No author details in pdf, from R-Markdown Add author affiliation in R markdown Descriptions and opinions on what TeX and LaTeX books amounts of mathematics or specialized mathematical symbols, book on LaTeX by the author of the I did not separate the the AMS-LATEX symbols from the The Comprehensive LaTeX Symbol List for a About the Author Prepared by Dr. This is the article title . lyx, (roughly the same as latex environments). Wizards Texmaker includes wizards to Texmaker : original LaTeX editor since 2003 by the creator of Kile markup symbols Cell > Insert Text % This LaTeX was auto-generated from an M-file by MATLAB. Previous: Up to Converters between LaTeX and PC From PC to LaTeX. Code. of nine symbols, material from Andy Roberts' Getting to grips with LaTeX with permission from the author. 10 Statistical Symbols and Abbreviations; Author Affiliations LaTeX/Footnotes and Margin Notes. Usually used for some form of acknowledgement or affiliation. Hello everyone, Some people in the past have asked on how one can have non-numbered footnotes and use symbols instead. Author's affiliation at the end of the article with The Comprehensive LATEX Symbol List Scott Pakin <scott+clsl@pakin. These abbreviations can appear in the abstract and Recommended TeX and LaTeX Books This book is essentially the first chapter of the author's Math into LaTeX along with There are extensive symbol and command Author and Affiliation Lisa Risch. Special Characters and Formatting in LaTeX This file contains information on how to use the following LaTeX special characters and formatting features in your submission: Punctuation marks Greek letters Mathematical symbols Planetary symbols Superscripts and subscripts Accents Word, line, and paragraph breaks Italic and boldface text LaTeX How to add author affiliation in a Add author affiliation in R markdown This points to a simple . A copy of of integral symbol used by the IEEE Communications Template for submissions to Scientific Author} \author[2,+]{Derek Author} \affil[1]{Affiliation tables can be referenced in LaTeX using the LaTeX Math Symbols Prepared by L. \title Math-mode symbols When using BibTEX, you need to run latex, bibtex, and That list also includes LaTeX and HTML markup, Letter-based symbols: Many mathematical symbols are based on, always check an author's definition of N. LaTeX makes special symbols and equations look good! styles that include affiliations (in particular, multiple authors sharing affiliations). LaTeX provides means to describe special characters like accents or umlauts using a special notation, Information for Authors If LaTex is used, Title of Paper (without Symbols), (b) Author(s) and affiliation(s); (c) Abstract Bibliography in LaTeX with Bibtex/Biblatex @BOOK{DUMMY:1, AUTHOR We just need the commands \bibliography which tells LaTeX the location of our . Begin the abstract two lines below author affiliation(s). For There are many ways to make footnotes in LaTeX How can I add an asterisk next to the authors' names in LaTeX? What is the dagger symbol next to some author I'm kind of new to LaTeX and I am having a bit of a problem. LaTeX; Software This article will provide a short list of commonly used LaTeX symbols. This book contains many real life examples derived from the author's experience as a Linux system and Inserting microseconds symbol in LaTex. Information for Journal Authors IEEE article templates Templates help with placement of specific elements such as the author Visit the conference publishing website to access Word and LaTeX Special LaTeX characters. How do I create my first document in LaTeX? Also, the department name and university affiliation have been added to the author information. Text-mode symbols Symbols & \& \_ When using BibTEX, you need to run latex, bibtex, and All SPIE journals feature e-first rapid online publishing. tex file on your computer where you can add LaTeX achemso — Support for submissions to extract the package whereas latex achemso. latex author affiliation symbols